The classic lifecycle is used to describe the phases that most products go through, i.e. Introduction, Growth, Maturity, Decline. Products move from one phase to the next phase in succession. The most successful products move slowly through each phase.
Similar to a product that has a lifecycle, companies have a lifecycle. The company lifecycle includes Introduction, Growth, Redesign, Maturity, and Merger & Acquisition. The goal of any business is to completely avoid the decline phase. During the decline phase it is not uncommon for a successful business to be acquired by a larger entity. But companies do not move from one phase to the next phase in sequence. The most successful companies will constantly shift back and forth between the growth to redesign to the maturity phase.
For a company, the phases are as follows –
This period is characterized by a heavy marketing focus. The company consumes cash to establish and build a brand. It is possible to lose the profit focus and instead be driven by revenues and customer acquisition counts. Pricing is set to promote client purchase. Within the business itself, staffing is low. Multiple tasks are being performed by a few individuals. These individuals may be required to manage different aspects of the business, which are not representative of their primary skill set. It is in this phase where a large number of start-up entities perish.
A victim of its own success, a company grows production and distribution rapidly. The company reacts to the sudden increase in business and creates processes that are inefficient; contracts are signed quickly, increasing the potential for error; employee overhead rises through increased overtime or additional headcount; and cash outlays jump to manage the increased business.
In this phase the focus turns to stream-lining processes and cost containment. Interestingly, the method to redesign a business is the implementation of standard business management “best practices.”
- Focus on Cash Flow. Poor cash flow management will impact a business by constraining its ability to fill orders timely if inputs and/or inventory purchases are delayed; replacing outdated equipment; and, implementing process improvement which historically has upfront costs, prior to the savings.
- Review product lines and services, to understand the profitability generated. The natural result will be an emphasis on the most profitable activities; while de-emphasizing the less profitable or money loosing activities.
- Review customer/client relationships, to understand the relationship value. Obtaining a customer that becomes unprofitable is a common situation. It only becomes an error of management if you do not review the economics of each client periodically, or ignore the results after the review. If you discover that a client is unprofitable, try to correct the situation or walk away from the client.
- Review and Improve Production/Service Processes. Process improvement is undertaken for a multitude of reasons which include – improve customer satisfaction, improve employee satisfaction, eliminate/contain non-value added costs. A non-value added cost is an expense that is incurred, but does not add to the value or perceived value of your product or service. Simply stated, it is a cost your customers will not want to pay. Instead you will assume the cost out of your profits. Company owners should attempt to protect their profit margins by eliminating or containing non-value added costs.
- Review and Improve Back-Office Processes. Several back-office tasks should be consistently managed closely. While more than likely these areas represent straight expense, all are critical to the successful management of any business.
- Accounting Management tasks include – Processing accurate state and federal filings; producing timely monthly financial statements; managing cash flow, i.e. receivables and payables; and responding to senior managers’ ad hoc questions.
- Financial Management – Providing critical financial and operational information to partners, with actionable recommendations on both strategy and operations, will allow your business to maximize profits: developing budgets/plans and analyzing financial variances to plan; installing a system of activity-based financial analysis; and managing vendor relationships to control expenses.
- Risk Management – A solid risk management program will reduce the probability of business disruptions, i.e. ensuring maintenance of appropriate internal controls and financial procedures; implementing financial and accounting “Best Practices;” and establishing metric(s) for each risk with corresponding tolerance range(s); and implementing a process of the timely distribution of critical success measures via a scorecard.
- Strategy Development – Analyzing business initiatives to determine expected cash flow, i.e. opening/closing offices, asset acquisition, new service launches; projecting impact of relationship pricing over time; and implementing processes that may open up new sources of business, i.e. sustainability, business continuity, engaging past customers.
In situations where offerings are similar, differentiation must be established at the company level. Why would consumers buy from me vs. my competitors, if I offer similar products? In this situation the company must adjust the value it delivers to customers, i.e. its value proposition. The answer to the question – you should buy from me because my product/service is superior and my knowledge, experience and customer service expertise will provide you with enhanced benefits.
As mentioned previously, the most successful companies will constantly shift back and forth between the growth to redesign to the maturity phase.
What phase is your company in?